Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

Miniature organs derived from cancer cells such as cancer organoids could potentially open a path forward for tailoring cancer drug use and treatment. Specifically, an important problem in cancer therapy lies in the inability to target and treat specific cancer subtypes recalcitrant to front-line chemotherapy drugs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the resistance to commonly used … More Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Ribosome are highly conserved in structure and function given their importance to protein synthesis. Comprising a small and large subunit, ribosomes are built up of ribosomal proteins and RNA that provide both structure and function to the macromolecular complex.   Ribosomal proteins, in particular, differ in mass between different species and thus constitute a unique … More General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Metagenomics for identification of microbes

The culture-independent technique of metagenomics offers a way to understand microbial diversity in the absence of the ability to culture most of the microorganisms in the environment. Specifically, the method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying microbes in various environmental samples without the need for first culturing the microbes … More Metagenomics for identification of microbes

Demand modelling of public transport system

Data generated by electronic ticketing system used in public transport services could be used in understanding and modelling the demand characteristics for rail and bus services; thereby, helping to better manage demand surge during peak hours.   Specifically, electronic ticketing system in public transport system could capture important information such as the demand for specific … More Demand modelling of public transport system

Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Loss of function assays are common in biology for understanding the function associated with a protein or gene. Typically, targeted mutagenesis is used for creating a specific gene or protein mutant, that due to loss of critical sequence information, result in a loss of function. Thus, the function lost can be associated with the gene … More Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions

Incorporating kinetic energy recovery technology, hybrid vehicles have demonstrated reduced emissions compared to conventional internal combustion engines powered cars. Thus, the future for land transportation may be more widespread adoption of hybrid vehicles which help reduce car emissions and safeguard local air quality in major cities around the world. Specifically, policy mandates for phasing out … More Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions

Conserved mass peaks in mass spectra of bacterial species

Conserved mass peaks were found in mass spectra of individual bacterial species that highlighted a deep biological basis in the use of mass spectrometry for identifying bacteria. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could profile biomolecules (mostly proteins) from bacterial cells that result in a mass spectrum useful for identification purposes. While … More Conserved mass peaks in mass spectra of bacterial species

Downtime on segments of transport network reveals resilience of system in capacity provision

Capacity planning of transport system is critical to overall smooth operation of the network. However, demand for public transport remains unpredictable given many factors that could impact on people’s choice of transport at different times of the day. Hence, reserve capacity is usually built into the transport system in the form of double decker buses … More Downtime on segments of transport network reveals resilience of system in capacity provision

High water consumption in fracking

Fracking utilizes high pressure fluid to hydraulically fracture rocks that entrap oil and gas in underground shale formation. While the process enhances the recovery of oil and gas previously not accessible to conventional drilling techniques, it requires the use of large amount of water and is thus not environmentally sustainable in arid regions with poor … More High water consumption in fracking

Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions

Molecular ions literally fly through the flight tube of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer where at the end of the travel, they are detected as an electrical charge on the detector. The duration of flight was measured and is a key parameter for calculation of the mass/charge ratio of the molecular ion based on a calibration … More Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions