Current drinking water treatment techniques, while effective, is increasingly unable to cope with the larger set of trace contaminants in treated water found to impact on human health. For example, in some areas of the world, treated water contains trace concentration of lead (~ 3 parts per billion, ppb level), arsenic (~ 2 ppb), boron, … More Reverse osmosis is the only means for removing trace contaminants in water
Reverse osmosis is increasingly used for desalination and purifying water unable to be treated by other means for removing trace contaminants known to impact on human health. However, what is the taste of pure water produced by reverse osmosis? The answer is it is different from tap water. Specifically, Singapore uses reverse osmosis for … More Taste of pure water produced through reverse osmosis
Perspective article in Science, Vol. 354, Issue. 6309, pp. 184, “A microbial route from coal to gas” Summary of article: An interesting article outlining the conceptual basis of microbes mediated conversion of coal into methane, a fuel gas, which is an analog of the more commonly encountered process where microorganisms digest waste carbonaceous materials … More Using microbes to convert coal to fuel gas
Water conservation is the main theme of discussion amongst future city planners and public utilities experts, and grey water is increasingly being put forward as a possible source of water for flushing toilets, as cities bid to reduce their overall water consumption. But, what is grey water and is it safe as a water source … More Health concerns of using grey water to flush toilets
Groundwater is a source of freshwater collected under the water table of a site. Refreshed and recharged by rainwater that percolates through the soil, it usually carries a rich mineral content and contains various elements ranging from heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, manganese etc. as well as decayed organic materials and … More Should groundwater be used for drinking purposes?