DNA writers for encoding cellular signals into the genome

Myriad cellular signals are generated through various regulatory activities for processes in metabolism and signal transduction. But the challenge has been in understanding these cellular signal transduction events that have largely remained hidden from our view. Using DNA writing technologies, researchers have been able to encode some of these previously hidden intracellular messages and signals … More DNA writers for encoding cellular signals into the genome

Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

Given that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) cells likely existed in alkaline hydrothermal vents in the ocean, enzymes that exist by that time in life’s evolution should be ones adapted to high temperature environments. Thus, in progressing from a high to low temperature environment, enzymes likely took a path down the energy ladder in … More Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

LB Lennox medium is commonly used for the cultivation of a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria. Comprising tryptone, yeast extract, and sodium chloride, its provides a rich medium for the cultivation of bacteria to relatively high cell density. However, while the attained cell density may be sufficient for cell biology and molecular biology studies, … More LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

Construction of single chromosome yeast cells

Yeast cells carry 16 linear chromosomes for encapsulating the genome of the species. Recent research has sought to rewrite the genome of yeast and one approach seeks to reduce the number of chromosomes required to encode all the genomic information. Specifically, by deleting the centromere and telomere of yeast chromosomes and fusing one chromosome with … More Construction of single chromosome yeast cells

Cluster analysis of microbial mass spectra could not infer phylogenetic relationships

Cluster analysis classify entities based on their degree of similarity. In the area of mass spectra analysis for microbial identification, cluster analysis has been used in classifying different mass spectra depending on the extent of similarity in mass peaks profiled. However, the approach could not infer phylogenetic relationship between species. Given that mass spectra that … More Cluster analysis of microbial mass spectra could not infer phylogenetic relationships

Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

Microbes do not live alone, rather, they assemble into multi-species and multicellular assemblage known as biofilms on various surfaces. Specifically, microbial cells often assemble into biofilm matrix with differentiated functions and roles in the consortium resulting from complex intercellular communications and signalling that mediates a division of labour amongst cells of the biofilm. Architecturally complex … More Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

CRISPR interference could negate the need for construction of deletion mutants

Loss of function studies is commonly used to decipher the functions of genes. Multiple ways could be used to implement loss of function of genes such as inactivation of gene expression or construction of deletion mutants. Due to the problem of leaky expression, inactivation of gene expression might not completely abrogate the expression of a … More CRISPR interference could negate the need for construction of deletion mutants

Anti-CRISPR proteins protect bacteriophages during infection of bacteria

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) is an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses and foreign DNA. Specifically, CRISPR and CRISPR associated proteins do constant surveillance of the cell’s cytoplasm for foreign DNA. Once detected, CRISPR-Cas would bind to the foreign DNA and activate an endonuclease system for cleaving the … More Anti-CRISPR proteins protect bacteriophages during infection of bacteria

MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of bacteria depends on their growth state

A mass spectrometer profiles for the set of molecules whose abundances exceed the minimum sensitivity of the instrument. Thus, highly abundant biomolecules would be more likely to be profiled and featured on the corresponding mass spectrum of the sample. In the case of profiling of biomolecules from microbial cells using the technique of matrix-assisted laser … More MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of bacteria depends on their growth state

Antibiotic resistance emerged prior to the advent of antibiotics medication

Antibiotics are natural compounds isolated from microorganisms useful for fending off other microbes in natural settings. Thus, resistance pathways, mechanisms, and genes emerged in microorganisms prior to the advent of antibiotics medication. What is commonly known as emergence of antibiotics resistance in the contemporary era refers to the horizontal transfer of resistance genes between microbes … More Antibiotic resistance emerged prior to the advent of antibiotics medication