Modification of cell surface prevents the attachment of phage to bacteria

Different methods are utilized by bacterial cells for defending against bacteriophages. For example, the CRISPR-Cas system retains a molecular memory of previous phage attack on the cells and uses it to prevent subsequent infection by the same phage. Another approach involves the synthesis of DNA intercalating agents that binds to the newly synthesized DNA of … More Modification of cell surface prevents the attachment of phage to bacteria

Mechanism underlying the emergence of antimicrobial resistance

Resistance to antimicrobial compounds is commonly thought to arise due to emergence of mutations after exposure of the microbes to the compound. This is not entirely true. What actually happens is that mechanisms underlying resistance to an antimicrobial compound exist in a few subpopulations of the species prior to exposure of the population to antimicrobial … More Mechanism underlying the emergence of antimicrobial resistance

Bioretrosynthesis for the manufacturing of complex molecules from simple substrates

Development of chemical synthetic schemes for a particular molecule is typically carried out in the retrosynthetic fashion by organic chemists. Specifically, organic chemists analysed the chemical structure of the molecule of interest, identify possible reaction schemes capable of generating the various functional groups present in the molecule, and finally sequence the chemical reactions in a … More Bioretrosynthesis for the manufacturing of complex molecules from simple substrates

Mixotrophs are carnivores with photosynthetic capabilities

The traditional view of the ocean and marine ecosystem divides the base of the marine food web between phytoplankton and zooplankton. Specifically, the phytoplankton carries photosynthetic machinery able to convert carbon dioxide and sunlight into oxygen and carbohydrates. On the other hand, zooplankton eats phytoplankton for food and energy.   However, recent research has identified … More Mixotrophs are carnivores with photosynthetic capabilities

Metabolic sensor in cells may react to nutritional environment available and decide on growth decision

In microbial ecology, experimental observations of fast-growing microbes able to grow on rich medium at the expense of slow-growing ones suggested that depletion of nutrients by fast-growers and subsequent domination of available agar surface may hamper the growth of slow-growing ones. However, why didn’t the slow-growing microbes also react to the high nutritional content of … More Metabolic sensor in cells may react to nutritional environment available and decide on growth decision

De novo enzyme design achieves good enzymatic activity

Improvement in enzyme activity typically arise from the introduction of mutations into the enzyme’s amino acid sequence. This is followed by a high throughput screen of the mutant enzymes for desired activity levels. Usually, a few mutants with enhanced activity for a given substrate could be obtained. Mutations could be introduced to an enzyme through … More De novo enzyme design achieves good enzymatic activity

DNA writers for encoding cellular signals into the genome

Myriad cellular signals are generated through various regulatory activities for processes in metabolism and signal transduction. But the challenge has been in understanding these cellular signal transduction events that have largely remained hidden from our view. Using DNA writing technologies, researchers have been able to encode some of these previously hidden intracellular messages and signals … More DNA writers for encoding cellular signals into the genome

Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

Given that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) cells likely existed in alkaline hydrothermal vents in the ocean, enzymes that exist by that time in life’s evolution should be ones adapted to high temperature environments. Thus, in progressing from a high to low temperature environment, enzymes likely took a path down the energy ladder in … More Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

LB Lennox medium is commonly used for the cultivation of a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria. Comprising tryptone, yeast extract, and sodium chloride, its provides a rich medium for the cultivation of bacteria to relatively high cell density. However, while the attained cell density may be sufficient for cell biology and molecular biology studies, … More LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

Construction of single chromosome yeast cells

Yeast cells carry 16 linear chromosomes for encapsulating the genome of the species. Recent research has sought to rewrite the genome of yeast and one approach seeks to reduce the number of chromosomes required to encode all the genomic information. Specifically, by deleting the centromere and telomere of yeast chromosomes and fusing one chromosome with … More Construction of single chromosome yeast cells