Liquid biopsy’s utility in cancer diagnosis and treatment

Fragments of DNA or RNA from cancer cells could be found in a patient’s blood; thus, opening up the possibility of a simple blood test for diagnosing and treating cancer. Known as liquid biopsy, blood tests offer a simpler and more cost-effective approach compared to tissue biopsy for initial understanding of a patient’s state of … More Liquid biopsy’s utility in cancer diagnosis and treatment

Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Lack of suitable disease models able to accurately recapitulate disease phenotypes is one of the major challenges in drug discovery and development given that disease models are needed for testing the relative efficacy of different candidate molecule at early stages of drug development. Thus, much effort have been devoted to the creation of suitable in … More Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Enhanced resistance to high intensity ultraviolet radiation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium capable of withstanding high intensity ultraviolet radiation. However, genome sequencing studies have revealed that the bacterium lack important genes in DNA repair compared to other bacterial species. Thus, it raises an important question concerning the mechanisms that underpins the enhanced resistance of the bacterium to high intensity … More Enhanced resistance to high intensity ultraviolet radiation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

Retarded swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PRD-10

Swarming motility is the collective coordinated movement of bacterial cells across a solid surface for colonizing new habitats such as during times of nutritional stress. Propelled by multiple flagella attached to the cell and aided by secreted surfactants and lubricants, swarming motility typically forms complex motility patterns during culture of the bacteria on solid agar … More Retarded swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PRD-10

Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Lack of suitable disease models able to accurately recapitulate disease phenotypes is one of the major challenges in drug discovery and development given that disease models are needed for testing the relative efficacy of different candidate molecule at early stages of drug development. Thus, much efforts have been devoted to the creation of suitable in … More Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Loss of function assays are common in biology for understanding the function associated with a protein or gene. Typically, targeted mutagenesis is used for creating a specific gene or protein mutant, that due to loss of critical sequence information, result in a loss of function. Thus, the function lost can be associated with the gene … More Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Phylogenetic trees track the evolutionary relatedness of genes and proteins

The tree of life is currently defined by a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, which harbours deep evolutionary information on the development of various species on Earth. Specifically, it is highly conserved across species, and yet possesses sufficient variability for individual species to be identified by differential sequence at the gene level. Thus, … More Phylogenetic trees track the evolutionary relatedness of genes and proteins

Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Originally used in defending bacterial cells from attacks by viruses, clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has been modified and utilized in editing single bases in DNA in a process known as genome editing. However, efficiency of CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) in executing precise single nucleotide genome editing remains poor due … More Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a bacterial defense system against foreign DNA or RNA carried by viruses, bacteriophages, or membrane vesicles. Specifically, nestled within the genome of the bacteria, CRISPR carries a memory of past infection of viruses and foreign DNA and RNA, and uses a Cas9 protein for destroying foreign DNA … More Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

Degeneracy in protein sequence meant that evolutionary conservation occurred at the structure level

Given the importance of many proteins to the maintenance of cellular processes, the structures of the proteins are highly conserved independent of the sequence information at the amino acid and nucleotide level. This raises an important question in evolutionary biology: the direction in which natural selection exerts its effect in selecting for specific information bits … More Degeneracy in protein sequence meant that evolutionary conservation occurred at the structure level