Endosymbiosis may have occurred more than once

Multiple theories exist to explain the occurrence of endosymbiosis, which is the leading theory outlining the sequence of events that led to the formation of modern cells. Specifically, modern cells are ancestral prokaryotic cells nestled within an eukaryotic host cell. For example, mitochondrion in cells have been identified as ancestral prokaryotic cells that evolved into … More Endosymbiosis may have occurred more than once

Field deployable DNA sequencers

Since its inception in the 1990s, multiple revolutions have occurred in the field of DNA sequencing, where successive iterations of the technology enabled more reliable and less error prone sequencing of increasingly larger segments of DNA from a variety of sources such as human, bacteria, fungi, viruses etc. Indeed, DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized biology … More Field deployable DNA sequencers

Utility of co-expression analysis

In biology, researchers often seek to understand the factors that underpin a particular cellular process or diseased state. Thus, this line of thinking necessarily result in experiment design that seek to correlate molecular events with cellular processes, which could be readout experimentally, either through microscopy techniques or enzymatic biochemical assays. More generally, co-expression analysis is … More Utility of co-expression analysis

Lipid metabolism and its role in obesity and health

Obese but healthy, thin but suffering from a multitude of disorders including metabolic syndrome. For years, this clinical observation, also known as metabolic healthy obese, has befuddled doctors and medical researchers, and motivated significant amount of research aimed at understanding the aetiology of obesity and its implications in health and disease.   Why would obesity … More Lipid metabolism and its role in obesity and health

Role of activating mutation in potentiating cancer

Article in Nature, Vol. 539, 10 November 2016, pp. 304, “Leukaemogenic effects of Ptpn11 activating mutations in the stem cell microenvironment”   Summary of article: Effect of the postulated activating mutation, Ptpn11, on leukaemia was investigated in genetically altered mice harbouring the mutation.   Link to the original article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27783593   Category: cancer, biochemistry, developmental … More Role of activating mutation in potentiating cancer

Single cell transcriptomics for revealing the compendium of different cell fates and cellular differentiation

Genomics is commonly thought to be the method for understanding the functional repertoire of cells, which, by extension, would reveal the different cell types, fates, lineages and cellular differentiation available to a consortium of cells within a locale such as the human body.   However, many of the genes encoded within the genome of a … More Single cell transcriptomics for revealing the compendium of different cell fates and cellular differentiation

Bacterial immune system utilized for genome editing

Feature article in Nature, Vol. 541, Issue 7637, pp. 280-282, “CRISPR’s Mysteries”   Summary of article: Used by bacterial and archaeal species for immune surveillance and defence of the cell against viruses, the single cell organism’s immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has increasingly find use in alternate scenarios, the most … More Bacterial immune system utilized for genome editing

Inability to predict cancer risk through mathematical modelling

Perspective article in Science, Vol. 355, Issue 6331, pp. 1266-1267, “Genes, environment, and “bad luck”   Summary of article: Multiple papers have used mathematical modelling to simulate cancer risk profile at the population level with varying success. Specifically, attempts have been made in correlating cancer stem cell division number with cancer risk; however, can we … More Inability to predict cancer risk through mathematical modelling

Standardization of nomenclature in cell biology and biological sciences

The fields of cell biology and biological sciences is awashed with difficult to remember names and abbreviations that do not identify the function of the proteins or their subunits. For example, the FEAR network in the field of cell biology. Thus, I was wondering if some form of standardization could be instituted by the leading … More Standardization of nomenclature in cell biology and biological sciences

Architecture of multienzyme complex in action: polyketide synthase

Article in Nature, Vol. 531, 24 March 2016, pp. 533, “Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases”   Summary of article: Various domains of polyketide synthases were crystallized individually or as segments, and the overall structure of the enzyme complex elucidated. While the method used structures of individual subunits to reconstruct the … More Architecture of multienzyme complex in action: polyketide synthase