Implementation of protein glycosylation in bacteria

Attachment of sugar molecules on biomolecules such as hormones is a key step in biologics manufacturing and is typically carried in eukaryotic cells which have the protein glycosylation machinery. However, eukaryotic hosts are typically more difficult to manipulate compared to prokaryotic cells such as bacteria, and this adds to the cost of biologics manufacturing. Secondly, … More Implementation of protein glycosylation in bacteria

Lack of vasculature system limits the functional size of 3D-printed organs

Bioprinting using 3D-printing technologies has enabled the creation of three-dimensional ensemble of cells and matrix proteins in defined geometry and dimension. However, the relative lack of techniques for creating the vasculature system that supplies nutrients and oxygen to cells limits the functional size of 3D-printed organs. Specifically, while it is possible to 3D-print large collection … More Lack of vasculature system limits the functional size of 3D-printed organs

DNA barcodes on nanoparticles enable high throughput screening of their binding affinities to cells

Nanoparticles capable of binding to cancer cells and releasing a payload for killing them has been shown to be a potential treatment option for different types of solid tumours. However, given the diversity of surface coatings that could be grafted on the nanoparticles’ surface for endowing them with different binding affinities to different cells, large … More DNA barcodes on nanoparticles enable high throughput screening of their binding affinities to cells

Broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the stem of hemagglutinin

Vaccines that target a conserved motif in the seasonal flu virus has been a holy grail in vaccine development given the need for seasonal updates of the vaccine complements for vaccinating people against flu each winter. However, efforts towards this end has been largely unsuccessful due to the high mutability of the flu virus. A … More Broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the stem of hemagglutinin

Expansion of DNA alphabet to 8 letters

Four letters, A, T, C, and G, representing different nucleotides currently constitute the alphabet of DNA, on which genetic information is encoded. However, the use of standardized nucleotides restricts our ability to introduce new functionalities into the genome or to encode unnatural amino acids in proteins. Hence, researchers have been endeavouring to expand the alphabet … More Expansion of DNA alphabet to 8 letters

Gene synthesis is replacing traditional molecular cloning of genes in genetic engineering

The first step of genetic engineering is typically the identification of a candidate gene in a species that is useful for a reaction not found in the organism of interest such as Escherichia coli. This is followed by the cloning of the candidate gene from the species and its insertion into a plasmid for expression … More Gene synthesis is replacing traditional molecular cloning of genes in genetic engineering

Chimeric antibody with different domains binds to different subtypes of flu virus

Antibodies typically bind to specific types of molecules. In the case of preventing flu virus from binding to receptors on cells, antibodies in the host could only recognise specific types of flu virus and are ineffective against other subtypes of flu virus. Thus, efforts have been devoted to the generation of chimeric antibodies through the … More Chimeric antibody with different domains binds to different subtypes of flu virus

Expansion microscopy illuminates tissue architecture and cell-cell interactions

Attempts to obtain deep understanding of the cell-cell interactions and organizational architecture of tissues have been hamstrung by the lack of tools for improving the resolution at which cell-cell interactions could be probed. This came about due to the short distance between different cell types in a tissue; thereby, hampering the use of optical microscopy … More Expansion microscopy illuminates tissue architecture and cell-cell interactions

Bioretrosynthesis for the manufacturing of complex molecules from simple substrates

Development of chemical synthetic schemes for a particular molecule is typically carried out in the retrosynthetic fashion by organic chemists. Specifically, organic chemists analysed the chemical structure of the molecule of interest, identify possible reaction schemes capable of generating the various functional groups present in the molecule, and finally sequence the chemical reactions in a … More Bioretrosynthesis for the manufacturing of complex molecules from simple substrates

Cell-free biocatalysis

Enzymes catalysed biochemical reactions and thus biotransformation for producing useful products are commonly carried out using whole cell biocatalysis, where the cell serves as carrier for the enzymes important to converting the substrate to product. However, due to multiple competing reactions in the cell, it is desired to achieve higher productivity and purity of products … More Cell-free biocatalysis