Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

Given that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) cells likely existed in alkaline hydrothermal vents in the ocean, enzymes that exist by that time in life’s evolution should be ones adapted to high temperature environments. Thus, in progressing from a high to low temperature environment, enzymes likely took a path down the energy ladder in … More Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

LB Lennox medium is commonly used for the cultivation of a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria. Comprising tryptone, yeast extract, and sodium chloride, its provides a rich medium for the cultivation of bacteria to relatively high cell density. However, while the attained cell density may be sufficient for cell biology and molecular biology studies, … More LB Lennox medium is limiting in sugars not nitrogen

Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

Microbes do not live alone, rather, they assemble into multi-species and multicellular assemblage known as biofilms on various surfaces. Specifically, microbial cells often assemble into biofilm matrix with differentiated functions and roles in the consortium resulting from complex intercellular communications and signalling that mediates a division of labour amongst cells of the biofilm. Architecturally complex … More Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

Buffer system is necessary for a medium to moderate large pH fluctuation that arise from the metabolism of excess glucose

Glucose supplementation is commonly used to provide more carbon source to a medium to help facilitate the attainment of a greater cell density. However, from my personal experience in microbial cell culture, excessive glucose supplementation would reduce biomass formation, possibly due to the induction of overflow metabolism through the central carbon pathway that lead to … More Buffer system is necessary for a medium to moderate large pH fluctuation that arise from the metabolism of excess glucose

Retarded swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PRD-10

Swarming motility is the collective coordinated movement of bacterial cells across a solid surface for colonizing new habitats such as during times of nutritional stress. Propelled by multiple flagella attached to the cell and aided by secreted surfactants and lubricants, swarming motility typically forms complex motility patterns during culture of the bacteria on solid agar … More Retarded swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PRD-10

Informatic challenge in MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry

Imaging mass spectrometry is a relatively new concept in mass spectrometry application that seeks to profile the ensemble of biomolecules in a tissue or sample. Useful for detecting and analysing biomolecules present in a sample in a large area format, imaging mass spectrometry generates huge datasets that must be annotated to obtain rich biological information … More Informatic challenge in MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry

Theoretical ribosomal protein mass fingerprint database

Ribosomal proteins constitute the large and small subunit of the ribosome. Given the highly conserved nature of ribosomes, ribosomal proteins are expected to be similarly conserved. However, theoretical calculations of the molecular mass of ribosomal proteins of different species revealed the existence of distinct molecular mass fingerprint of ribosomal proteins from individual species. Such ribosomal … More Theoretical ribosomal protein mass fingerprint database

Inferior solutions from single pathway-based drug discovery

Biomedical research typically focuses on a few pathways thought to be important to disease physiology; however, multiple pathways (both signalling and metabolic) are likely to be important to the clinical manifestations of complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome or cancer. Hence, what are the repercussions from biomedical research focus on single pathway for understanding disease … More Inferior solutions from single pathway-based drug discovery

General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Ribosome are highly conserved in structure and function given their importance to protein synthesis. Comprising a small and large subunit, ribosomes are built up of ribosomal proteins and RNA that provide both structure and function to the macromolecular complex.   Ribosomal proteins, in particular, differ in mass between different species and thus constitute a unique … More General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions

Molecular ions literally fly through the flight tube of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer where at the end of the travel, they are detected as an electrical charge on the detector. The duration of flight was measured and is a key parameter for calculation of the mass/charge ratio of the molecular ion based on a calibration … More Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions