General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Ribosome are highly conserved in structure and function given their importance to protein synthesis. Comprising a small and large subunit, ribosomes are built up of ribosomal proteins and RNA that provide both structure and function to the macromolecular complex.   Ribosomal proteins, in particular, differ in mass between different species and thus constitute a unique … More General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions

Molecular ions literally fly through the flight tube of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer where at the end of the travel, they are detected as an electrical charge on the detector. The duration of flight was measured and is a key parameter for calculation of the mass/charge ratio of the molecular ion based on a calibration … More Long flight tube in time-of-flight mass spectrometer enables better separation of different analyte ions

Is there a theoretical mass limit to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry?

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) uses a laser to ionize molecules from a matrix coated sample surface, accelerate them along a vacuum tube through the application of an electric field, and obtained a mass/charge ratio of the molecular ion by timing the flight of the ion. Given that time-of-flight of the molecular … More Is there a theoretical mass limit to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry?

Need for proteome molecular mass library to aid peak identification in MALDI-TOF MS microbial identification

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) generates microorganism-specific mass spectrum which has been shown to be useful in microbial identification via the mass spectrum fingerprinting approach. Specifically, the mass spectrum of an unknown microorganism is compared against those catalogued in a reference database of known microbes to aid in positive identification of microbe. … More Need for proteome molecular mass library to aid peak identification in MALDI-TOF MS microbial identification

Inability to constrain metabolic models with growth data in the absence of compositional changes in medium

The goal of metabolic modelling is to determine the metabolic flux through specific pathways in the cell. Doing so requires data on cell growth (whether microbes or human cells) as well as compositional data of the growth medium given that cellular metabolic activities would consume nutrients as well as generate byproducts that accumulate in the … More Inability to constrain metabolic models with growth data in the absence of compositional changes in medium

Protein identification is the key challenge in proteomics

Proteomics seek to uncover the ensemble of proteins within a cell or the cell surface. However, whether assisted by mass spectrometry or Western Blot, the key challenge in proteomics remain the identification of proteins. Protein identification remains laborious and time expensive even in the case of mass spectrometry-based proteomics where the challenge lies in the … More Protein identification is the key challenge in proteomics

Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Originally used in defending bacterial cells from attacks by viruses, clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has been modified and utilized in editing single bases in DNA in a process known as genome editing. However, efficiency of CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) in executing precise single nucleotide genome editing remains poor due … More Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a bacterial defense system against foreign DNA or RNA carried by viruses, bacteriophages, or membrane vesicles. Specifically, nestled within the genome of the bacteria, CRISPR carries a memory of past infection of viruses and foreign DNA and RNA, and uses a Cas9 protein for destroying foreign DNA … More Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

How to confirm that a microbe could grow in minimal salts medium?

Growth in a minimal salts medium signifies that a microbe has a competitive advantage over other microbial species for nutrients and, more importantly, environmental habitats. But, how should one confirm that a microbe could grow in minimal salts medium? Specifically, should the inoculum contain any trace of a rich medium? The answer to the latter … More How to confirm that a microbe could grow in minimal salts medium?