Antibiotic resistance emerged prior to the advent of antibiotics medication

Antibiotics are natural compounds isolated from microorganisms useful for fending off other microbes in natural settings. Thus, resistance pathways, mechanisms, and genes emerged in microorganisms prior to the advent of antibiotics medication. What is commonly known as emergence of antibiotics resistance in the contemporary era refers to the horizontal transfer of resistance genes between microbes … More Antibiotic resistance emerged prior to the advent of antibiotics medication

Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Lack of suitable disease models able to accurately recapitulate disease phenotypes is one of the major challenges in drug discovery and development given that disease models are needed for testing the relative efficacy of different candidate molecule at early stages of drug development. Thus, much effort have been devoted to the creation of suitable in … More Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Inferior solutions from single pathway-based drug discovery

Biomedical research typically focuses on a few pathways thought to be important to disease physiology; however, multiple pathways (both signalling and metabolic) are likely to be important to the clinical manifestations of complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome or cancer. Hence, what are the repercussions from biomedical research focus on single pathway for understanding disease … More Inferior solutions from single pathway-based drug discovery

Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Lack of suitable disease models able to accurately recapitulate disease phenotypes is one of the major challenges in drug discovery and development given that disease models are needed for testing the relative efficacy of different candidate molecule at early stages of drug development. Thus, much efforts have been devoted to the creation of suitable in … More Generation of disease models through CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology

Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

Miniature organs derived from cancer cells such as cancer organoids could potentially open a path forward for tailoring cancer drug use and treatment. Specifically, an important problem in cancer therapy lies in the inability to target and treat specific cancer subtypes recalcitrant to front-line chemotherapy drugs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the resistance to commonly used … More Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

Ribosome are highly conserved in structure and function given their importance to protein synthesis. Comprising a small and large subunit, ribosomes are built up of ribosomal proteins and RNA that provide both structure and function to the macromolecular complex.   Ribosomal proteins, in particular, differ in mass between different species and thus constitute a unique … More General structure of the ribosome may be conserved, but small alterations in structural features likely exist between ribosomes of different species

The arduous process of drug discovery and development

Drug development is a continuous process. Specifically, there will always be drugs in preclinical development and more advanced ones in clinical trials. These medicines are typically exorbitant in cost due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which is their small production volume coupled with the need to recoup the hefty investment needed … More The arduous process of drug discovery and development

Explaining checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy

Checkpoint inhibitors are one class of potent drugs currently in clinical trials for use in cancer immunotherapy approaches for cancer treatment. But, their mode of operation and underlying concept is more difficult to understand compared to other classes of immunotherapy for cancer such as chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells (CART).   Specifically, checkpoint inhibitors … More Explaining checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy