How to classify individual cells into different subtypes?

Many methods exist to observe cells both in vitro and in vivo; the most common of which is microscopy coupled with staining method. For example, modern optical microscopes are regularly used in identifying diseased cells. Alternatively, confocal laser scanning microscopy could also use fluorescent signals from fluorescent reporters transfected and expressed in cells for tagging … More How to classify individual cells into different subtypes?

Phenotypic switch to persister state confers resistance to vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to cause many hospital acquired infections and is difficult to treat. While susceptible to attack by vancomycin antibiotic, clinical observations suggest that MRSA may also be resistant to the last-resort antibiotic for MRSA treatment. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that confer vancomycin resistance to MRSA.   … More Phenotypic switch to persister state confers resistance to vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Bispecific antibodies help immune cells latch onto cancer cells

Harnessing the body’s immune system for fighting cancer cells is emerging as the fourth pillar of cancer therapy alongside surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Known as immunotherapy, the approach modulates immune cells for recognizing cancer cells, and more importantly, prime them for the fight against cancer. To this end, checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor … More Bispecific antibodies help immune cells latch onto cancer cells

Big data drives precision medicine

Advent of omics technologies such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics poise to revolutionise healthcare. Specifically, tools and methods have been promulgated that would provide a molecular understanding of pathological processes in the human body. Together with computer algorithms that sought to understand and mine inferences from these data sources concerning the genetic complement and … More Big data drives precision medicine

Growth curves provide important information about a microorganism

Microbial growth experiments are often under-appreciated in research, but they provide important information about each species and strain of microorganism prior to their use for more advanced studies.   Specifically, while growth experiments had been conducted for many of the common microorganisms important to biotechnology and bioengineering, many subspecies or strains of the same species … More Growth curves provide important information about a microorganism

Single molecule experiments typically pertain to hundreds to thousands of molecules

Single molecule experiment is one of the important trends in research over the past decade. However, what are defined as single molecule experiments are typically not experiments interrogating a single molecule (except for imaging of a DNA molecule in bacteria). Rather, single molecule experiments typically revolve around hundreds to thousands of molecules.   Specifically, schematic … More Single molecule experiments typically pertain to hundreds to thousands of molecules

Personalized nutrition relies on personal genome information to tune the metabolic profile of individuals

Nutritional advice is often offered for the broad masses. However, observations of differing metabolic responses of individuals to the same types of food revealed differentiated responses of individuals to the same diet. This could be due to the differentiated metabolic responses of individuals potentiated by differing variants of enzymes and metabolic pathways. Thus, the mutations … More Personalized nutrition relies on personal genome information to tune the metabolic profile of individuals

Re-domestication of food crops using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing

Selective breeding has played a major role in the evolution of domesticated food crops such as tomatoes. For example, progressive selective breeding by farmers selected for traits useful for garnering a higher price for the food crop as well as enabling ease of harvest. However, significant flavour and nutritional content were lost from the food … More Re-domestication of food crops using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing

Understanding possible synchronized synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins for the oxidative phosphorylation complex

Article in Nature, Vol. 533, 26 May 2016, pp. 499-502, “Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs”   Summary of article: Time course RNA sequencing was used to illuminate the mechanism by which transcription and translation for oxidative phosphorylation complexes are coordinated.   Comment: Given the relatively small quantities of RNA transcript for oxidative phosphorylation complex … More Understanding possible synchronized synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins for the oxidative phosphorylation complex

Smartphones as instruments for science

Feature article in Nature, Vol. 545, Issue 7652, pp. 119-121, 04 May 2017, “Pocket laboratories”   Summary of article: Since its introduction in 2007, smartphones have achieved a level of penetration in the consumer market, both in developing countries and developed economies, that it is almost ubiquitous in life. Buttressed by the multi-function and customization … More Smartphones as instruments for science