Given that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) cells likely existed in alkaline hydrothermal vents in the ocean, enzymes that exist by that time in life’s evolution should be ones adapted to high temperature environments. Thus, in progressing from a high to low temperature environment, enzymes likely took a path down the energy ladder in … More Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment
The ability to relate a particular weather event to climate change was lacking about a decade ago. However, with a statistical modelling approach combined with computer simulation of climate evolution, it has become possible to identify, with high accuracy, the causative factors that influence a weather event. Typically, climate modelling could inform the relative extent … More Weather attribution studies could relate a particular weather event to climate change with high accuracy
With contemporary satellite navigation technology, the approach of identifying a specific location on Earth would be through the use of a combination of latitude and longitude or satellite coordinates. However, this does not solve the broader question of how to assign contextual information (such as a building or apartment) to a location. The answer to … More How to assign an address to a specific location on Earth?
Deposits rich in nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese have been found on the seabed in many areas of the world. Existing as nodules that could be recovered through mining the seabed, the discovery opens up the possibility of mining the seabed for some of the metals that support our industrial and technological societies. However, the … More Deep sea mining of mineral rich deposits
Hybrid and electric vehicles both aim to reduce the impact of cars on the environment such as in mitigating climate change and reducing local air pollution. However, their different technology platforms set an inherent threshold on the amount of protection that they could offer to the environment. For example, electric vehicles could only offer protection … More Comparing environmental performance of electric and hybrid vehicles
Large variety of microorganisms were recovered from deionized and tap water after cultivation on R2A agar and a formulated colourless agar. Specifically, more types and numbers of microorganisms were recovered from deionized water compared to tap water due possibly to the removal of the residual disinfectant monochloramine from tap water by ion exchange resins of … More Microbes in deionized and tap water
Whether renewable fuels help combat climate change or solve local air quality problems depends on how cleanly the fuel could be burned. Specifically, if the renewable fuel burns cleanly and with less emissions compared to conventional gasoline, it could potentially help alleviate local air pollution problem. However, if the renewable fuel is comparable to conventional … More Do renewable fuels solve a climate change problem or air quality problem?
Incorporating kinetic energy recovery technology, hybrid vehicles have demonstrated reduced emissions compared to conventional internal combustion engines powered cars. Thus, the future for land transportation may be more widespread adoption of hybrid vehicles which help reduce car emissions and safeguard local air quality in major cities around the world. Specifically, policy mandates for phasing out … More Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions
Currently, direct charging of an electric vehicle is the only commercially available method for charging the vehicle. But, possibility exists in the use of replaceable power packs from existing network of petrol stations that provide the addon service of providing battery power packs for electric vehicles. Comparing the two different modes of providing electric charge … More Methods for powering an electric vehicle
City-wide network of electric charging stations is necessary for supporting the use of electric cars in a city. However, current debate in the implementation of supporting infrastructure for electric cars in a city rest on the funding model for creation of such a city-wide electric charging network. Specifically, should the utilities companies in a city … More Funding model for network of electric charging stations in a city