Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions

Incorporating kinetic energy recovery technology, hybrid vehicles have demonstrated reduced emissions compared to conventional internal combustion engines powered cars. Thus, the future for land transportation may be more widespread adoption of hybrid vehicles which help reduce car emissions and safeguard local air quality in major cities around the world. Specifically, policy mandates for phasing out … More Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions

Methods for powering an electric vehicle

Currently, direct charging of an electric vehicle is the only commercially available method for charging the vehicle. But, possibility exists in the use of replaceable power packs from existing network of petrol stations that provide the addon service of providing battery power packs for electric vehicles. Comparing the two different modes of providing electric charge … More Methods for powering an electric vehicle

Funding model for network of electric charging stations in a city

City-wide network of electric charging stations is necessary for supporting the use of electric cars in a city. However, current debate in the implementation of supporting infrastructure for electric cars in a city rest on the funding model for creation of such a city-wide electric charging network. Specifically, should the utilities companies in a city … More Funding model for network of electric charging stations in a city

Water footprint of food production

Water is a necessary resource for food production, but given increasing stress on water resources around the world, the concept of water footprint for food production becomes a relevant idea for thinking about economically and ecologically sustainable agriculture.   Specifically, through innovations in irrigation and development of food crops with less need for water during … More Water footprint of food production

What is the value of an electric car to the environment at present: zero emissions or reduction in use of fossil energy?

Electric cars are often portrayed in the media as clean, zero emissions vehicles that tap on the latest innovations in renewable energy technologies. However, are they truly zero emissions vehicles and what is their most important contributions to environmental protection?   With an electric motor that runs on energy derived from the power grid, electric … More What is the value of an electric car to the environment at present: zero emissions or reduction in use of fossil energy?

Determining the effect of tropical cyclone on sediment transport by river

Article in Nature, Vol. 539, 10 November 2016, pp. 276, “Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical cyclone activity”   Summary of article: Effect of tropical cyclone on sediment transport along the Mekong river was estimated using a combination of hydrological models and sediment flow data. The authors may not be solving … More Determining the effect of tropical cyclone on sediment transport by river

Factors determining grasslands organismal diversity

Article in Nature, Vol. 537, Issue 7618, pp. 93, “Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity” Summary of article: Number of below ground nutrients was found to positively correlate with above ground plant diversity in field experiments. In general, a paper with a confusing title, but the essence of the experiments presented speak of … More Factors determining grasslands organismal diversity

Health concerns of using grey water to flush toilets

Water conservation is the main theme of discussion amongst future city planners and public utilities experts, and grey water is increasingly being put forward as a possible source of water for flushing toilets, as cities bid to reduce their overall water consumption. But, what is grey water and is it safe as a water source … More Health concerns of using grey water to flush toilets

Should groundwater be used for drinking purposes?

Groundwater is a source of freshwater collected under the water table of a site. Refreshed and recharged by rainwater that percolates through the soil, it usually carries a rich mineral content and contains various elements ranging from heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, manganese etc. as well as decayed organic materials and … More Should groundwater be used for drinking purposes?