Electricity grid comprising multiple mini-grids may be more inefficient with significant transmission losses

Adoption of increasing amount of renewable energy by many countries has introduced significant problems associated with how excess energy generated by renewable sources could be handled. Grid level storage solutions such as lithium-ion batteries provide a certain amount of energy storage for excess renewable energy generated. However, production of renewable energy such as solar and … More Electricity grid comprising multiple mini-grids may be more inefficient with significant transmission losses

Limit for forward weather forecast may be 14 days

Advances in computational modelling, particularly in understanding how cloud dynamics influence atmospheric circulation and weather, has brought forth an increase in weather prediction accuracy and the number of days of forward weather forecast. The current best-in-class atmospheric circulation and weather models afford a forward weather forecast of 10 days with sufficient accuracy in prediction.   … More Limit for forward weather forecast may be 14 days

Converting sunlight directly into carbon-based fuels

Two routes exist for the conversion of sunlight into fuels for transportation or power generation: first, the conversion of sunlight into energy for generation of hydrogen from water; second, the direct conversion of sunlight and carbon dioxide into liquid carbon-based fuels.   The first approach tries to mimic photosynthesis by having two half-reactions that would … More Converting sunlight directly into carbon-based fuels

Challenges of pricing electricity for homes connected to a central battery with feeds from renewable energy and grid electricity

Consider the case where a high-rise apartment block is connected to a battery that stores energy from solar photovoltaic panels and the electricity grid. Typically, the battery would discharge electricity to homes in the apartment block whether the electricity supply comes from solar panels or the grid. Hence, the scenario opens up serious questions on … More Challenges of pricing electricity for homes connected to a central battery with feeds from renewable energy and grid electricity

Mixotrophs are carnivores with photosynthetic capabilities

The traditional view of the ocean and marine ecosystem divides the base of the marine food web between phytoplankton and zooplankton. Specifically, the phytoplankton carries photosynthetic machinery able to convert carbon dioxide and sunlight into oxygen and carbohydrates. On the other hand, zooplankton eats phytoplankton for food and energy.   However, recent research has identified … More Mixotrophs are carnivores with photosynthetic capabilities

Alaska tundra has become a source of carbon dioxide

Arctic permafrost serves as a permanent store of carbon given its perennial frozen nature. However, with global warming and rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic, many areas of the Arctic permafrost have thawed. With microbial activity degrading the trapped carbon in the permafrost, significant releases of methane and carbon dioxide would contribute to the total … More Alaska tundra has become a source of carbon dioxide

Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

Given that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) cells likely existed in alkaline hydrothermal vents in the ocean, enzymes that exist by that time in life’s evolution should be ones adapted to high temperature environments. Thus, in progressing from a high to low temperature environment, enzymes likely took a path down the energy ladder in … More Enzyme likely evolved from a high temperature to a low temperature environment

Weather attribution studies could relate a particular weather event to climate change with high accuracy

The ability to relate a particular weather event to climate change was lacking about a decade ago. However, with a statistical modelling approach combined with computer simulation of climate evolution, it has become possible to identify, with high accuracy, the causative factors that influence a weather event. Typically, climate modelling could inform the relative extent … More Weather attribution studies could relate a particular weather event to climate change with high accuracy

How to assign an address to a specific location on Earth?

With contemporary satellite navigation technology, the approach of identifying a specific location on Earth would be through the use of a combination of latitude and longitude or satellite coordinates. However, this does not solve the broader question of how to assign contextual information (such as a building or apartment) to a location. The answer to … More How to assign an address to a specific location on Earth?