Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

Miniature organs derived from cancer cells such as cancer organoids could potentially open a path forward for tailoring cancer drug use and treatment. Specifically, an important problem in cancer therapy lies in the inability to target and treat specific cancer subtypes recalcitrant to front-line chemotherapy drugs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the resistance to commonly used … More Cancer organoids for tailoring cancer treatment

Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Loss of function assays are common in biology for understanding the function associated with a protein or gene. Typically, targeted mutagenesis is used for creating a specific gene or protein mutant, that due to loss of critical sequence information, result in a loss of function. Thus, the function lost can be associated with the gene … More Utility of rescue experiments in biology

Conserved mass peaks in mass spectra of bacterial species

Conserved mass peaks were found in mass spectra of individual bacterial species that highlighted a deep biological basis in the use of mass spectrometry for identifying bacteria. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could profile biomolecules (mostly proteins) from bacterial cells that result in a mass spectrum useful for identification purposes. While … More Conserved mass peaks in mass spectra of bacterial species

Inability to constrain metabolic models with growth data in the absence of compositional changes in medium

The goal of metabolic modelling is to determine the metabolic flux through specific pathways in the cell. Doing so requires data on cell growth (whether microbes or human cells) as well as compositional data of the growth medium given that cellular metabolic activities would consume nutrients as well as generate byproducts that accumulate in the … More Inability to constrain metabolic models with growth data in the absence of compositional changes in medium

Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Originally used in defending bacterial cells from attacks by viruses, clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has been modified and utilized in editing single bases in DNA in a process known as genome editing. However, efficiency of CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) in executing precise single nucleotide genome editing remains poor due … More Utility of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing lies in the error rate of DNA repair

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a bacterial defense system against foreign DNA or RNA carried by viruses, bacteriophages, or membrane vesicles. Specifically, nestled within the genome of the bacteria, CRISPR carries a memory of past infection of viruses and foreign DNA and RNA, and uses a Cas9 protein for destroying foreign DNA … More Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial defense system

Degeneracy in protein sequence meant that evolutionary conservation occurred at the structure level

Given the importance of many proteins to the maintenance of cellular processes, the structures of the proteins are highly conserved independent of the sequence information at the amino acid and nucleotide level. This raises an important question in evolutionary biology: the direction in which natural selection exerts its effect in selecting for specific information bits … More Degeneracy in protein sequence meant that evolutionary conservation occurred at the structure level

Endosymbiosis may have occurred more than once

Multiple theories exist to explain the occurrence of endosymbiosis, which is the leading theory outlining the sequence of events that led to the formation of modern cells. Specifically, modern cells are ancestral prokaryotic cells nestled within an eukaryotic host cell. For example, mitochondrion in cells have been identified as ancestral prokaryotic cells that evolved into … More Endosymbiosis may have occurred more than once

Duration of incubation of agar plates for viable cell count

Viable cell count is a common technique for assessing the relative number of viable cells in a culture that could be coaxed to grow on agar plates after serial dilution using a suitable diluent such as phosphate buffer. In essence, viable cell count asks the question: what are the numbers of viable cells in a … More Duration of incubation of agar plates for viable cell count