Renewable energy such as solar and wind power’s share of the energy mix is increasing in many parts of the world. While increasing proportion of renewable energy helps reduce the carbon footprint of electricity generation and reduce the impacts on climate change, low frequency events such as weather non-favourable to renewable energy generation may impose … More Resilience of electricity system with high proportion of renewable power generation
Solar power scale linearly with the collecting area of the photovoltaic panels. Given the scarcity of low-cost land in major cities around the world, lack of space has presented as a significant constraint to the future expansion of solar power as part of a changing energy mix for cities. Thus, various ideas and proposals have … More Potential high transmission cost of electricity from offshore solar farm
Solar power scale linearly with surface area. Thus, land is a critical cost component for the production of solar power and plays a critical role in determining the location of solar farms. Typically, solar farms are situated in areas with lower land cost such as the outskirts of a city. Newer designs of solar farms … More Land price is a cost item for solar power generation
Hydraulic fracturing uses a combination of high pressure water and horizontal drilling to access oil trapped in previously untapped shale formation. With the technique, oil previously inaccessible has been opened up for exploration and exploitation. But, the technique typically drilled a single shale layer using a smaller number of wells. Improvements in the technique has … More Drilling multiple layers of shale formation for oil
Feed-in tariffs are commonly applied in support of greater adoption of renewable energy generation by a country, state or city. Briefly, feed-in tariffs pay for the difference in price between the production cost of renewable energy and the price of grid electricity. However, are they essential or could renewable energy compete competitively with non-renewable energy … More Essentiality of feed-in tariffs in support of renewable energy adoption?
Hybrid and electric vehicles both aim to reduce the impact of cars on the environment such as in mitigating climate change and reducing local air pollution. However, their different technology platforms set an inherent threshold on the amount of protection that they could offer to the environment. For example, electric vehicles could only offer protection … More Comparing environmental performance of electric and hybrid vehicles
Incorporating kinetic energy recovery technology, hybrid vehicles have demonstrated reduced emissions compared to conventional internal combustion engines powered cars. Thus, the future for land transportation may be more widespread adoption of hybrid vehicles which help reduce car emissions and safeguard local air quality in major cities around the world. Specifically, policy mandates for phasing out … More Hybrid vehicles may be the way forward in reducing car emissions
Fracking utilizes high pressure fluid to hydraulically fracture rocks that entrap oil and gas in underground shale formation. While the process enhances the recovery of oil and gas previously not accessible to conventional drilling techniques, it requires the use of large amount of water and is thus not environmentally sustainable in arid regions with poor … More High water consumption in fracking
Water conservation is the main theme of discussion amongst future city planners and public utilities experts, and grey water is increasingly being put forward as a possible source of water for flushing toilets, as cities bid to reduce their overall water consumption. But, what is grey water and is it safe as a water source … More Health concerns of using grey water to flush toilets
Groundwater is a source of freshwater collected under the water table of a site. Refreshed and recharged by rainwater that percolates through the soil, it usually carries a rich mineral content and contains various elements ranging from heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, manganese etc. as well as decayed organic materials and … More Should groundwater be used for drinking purposes?