Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

Microbes do not live alone, rather, they assemble into multi-species and multicellular assemblage known as biofilms on various surfaces. Specifically, microbial cells often assemble into biofilm matrix with differentiated functions and roles in the consortium resulting from complex intercellular communications and signalling that mediates a division of labour amongst cells of the biofilm. Architecturally complex … More Light-based patterning of bacterial cells through induction of biofilm formation processes

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy for cancer

Use of the body’s immune system in fighting cancer has attracted much research attention over the past few years. Specifically, different approaches such as checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell have been shown to be effective in killing tumour cells and controlling cancer.   In the case of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART), a … More Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy for cancer

CRISPR interference could negate the need for construction of deletion mutants

Loss of function studies is commonly used to decipher the functions of genes. Multiple ways could be used to implement loss of function of genes such as inactivation of gene expression or construction of deletion mutants. Due to the problem of leaky expression, inactivation of gene expression might not completely abrogate the expression of a … More CRISPR interference could negate the need for construction of deletion mutants

Anti-CRISPR proteins protect bacteriophages during infection of bacteria

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) is an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses and foreign DNA. Specifically, CRISPR and CRISPR associated proteins do constant surveillance of the cell’s cytoplasm for foreign DNA. Once detected, CRISPR-Cas would bind to the foreign DNA and activate an endonuclease system for cleaving the … More Anti-CRISPR proteins protect bacteriophages during infection of bacteria

MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of bacteria depends on their growth state

A mass spectrometer profiles for the set of molecules whose abundances exceed the minimum sensitivity of the instrument. Thus, highly abundant biomolecules would be more likely to be profiled and featured on the corresponding mass spectrum of the sample. In the case of profiling of biomolecules from microbial cells using the technique of matrix-assisted laser … More MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of bacteria depends on their growth state

Phase separation of transcriptional activation complex in cells

DNA transcription is a complex choreographed exercise where myriad transcription factors, accessory proteins and RNA polymerase assemble on defined sites close to the transcriptional start site for the generation of a messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA. While it was conventionally viewed as distinct molecules mediating the process, recent studies have observed, through various microscopy techniques, … More Phase separation of transcriptional activation complex in cells

Error-prone PCR generates mutant library needed for screening new improved phenotypes of enzymes

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the workhorse of modern biology given that it provides for the amplification of small amount of DNA to quantities useful for subsequent steps of most biological workflows. For example, PCR is commonly used to amplify specific target genes such as 16S rRNA of bacterial species in environmental samples to help … More Error-prone PCR generates mutant library needed for screening new improved phenotypes of enzymes

Wash buffer of ionic strength 0.15M could unmask the real surface charge of Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 cells

Bacterial cells in solution would inevitably carry a layer of nonspecifically adsorbed ions and molecules on their cell surface resulting from contact with the solution. This layer of nonspecifically adsorbed ions and molecules would thus masks the real surface charge of the bacteria. To reveal the real surface charge of bacteria during microelectrophoretic measurement of … More Wash buffer of ionic strength 0.15M could unmask the real surface charge of Bacillus subtilis NRS-762 cells

Subsidies for spare electricity generation capacity of fossil fuel power plants in an electricity grid with high proportion of renewable energy generation

Renewable energy’s share of total energy production is increasing in many parts of the world, and this would have a substantial impact on energy resilience of electricity grid, particularly in maintaining a stable flow of electricity to end-users in the event of lack of generation of renewable energy.   To smooth out the fluctuations in … More Subsidies for spare electricity generation capacity of fossil fuel power plants in an electricity grid with high proportion of renewable energy generation

High technology paints for enabling autonomous driving

Radio waves and light sensors are commonly fitted to autonomous vehicles for detecting the speeds and distances of objects around the vehicle. However, dark paints on vehicles tend to absorb the radio waves and infrared signals used by such sensors. Hence, much research has been invested in the creation of multi-layer structured high technology paints … More High technology paints for enabling autonomous driving