Reverse osmosis uses high pressure to overcome the inherent osmotic pressure of freshwater to help remove salts from seawater. The process is energy intensive due to the need for high pressure. However, compared to thermo distillation methods for seawater desalination which uses heat induced evaporation of water to generate freshwater, reverse osmosis uses 90% less … More Reverse osmosis uses 90% less energy compared to thermo distillation methods in seawater desalination
Adsorption is a low energy water and wastewater treatment technology. Thus, would the combination of adsorption and membrane treatment technologies lead to a low energy treatment system? The answer depends on the pore size of the membrane used in adsorptive membrane technologies, where the membrane surface serves as adsorbent for the sorption of heavy metals … More Adsorptive membrane treatment technologies may not have a low energy footprint
Forward osmosis is a relatively new membrane process for wastewater treatment. Specifically, it entails the addition of a volatile solute (such as ammonium carbonate) to the permeate side of the membrane for inducing the diffusion of water molecules across the membrane down a water concentration gradient. The volatile solute would be subsequently removed from the … More Energy requirement of forward osmosis membrane processes may not be lower than that of reverse osmosis
Current drinking water treatment techniques, while effective, is increasingly unable to cope with the larger set of trace contaminants in treated water found to impact on human health. For example, in some areas of the world, treated water contains trace concentration of lead (~ 3 parts per billion, ppb level), arsenic (~ 2 ppb), boron, … More Reverse osmosis is the only means for removing trace contaminants in water
Reverse osmosis is increasingly used for desalination and purifying water unable to be treated by other means for removing trace contaminants known to impact on human health. However, what is the taste of pure water produced by reverse osmosis? The answer is it is different from tap water. Specifically, Singapore uses reverse osmosis for … More Taste of pure water produced through reverse osmosis
Groundwater is a source of freshwater collected under the water table of a site. Refreshed and recharged by rainwater that percolates through the soil, it usually carries a rich mineral content and contains various elements ranging from heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, manganese etc. as well as decayed organic materials and … More Should groundwater be used for drinking purposes?